How is fiber is used in the worldwide?

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Update time : 2020-09-14 18:27:17

In our everyday life, we have used to the internet, we learn from the internet, we work online with other people, we share with others across the internet. We all know fibers are what link us, but no one acknowledging how is fiber used across all over the world. However, I bet you heard FTTH. In the industry, we’ve basically called it FTTx.
- FTTH: fiber to the home
- FTTP: fiber to the premises
- FTTC: fiber to the curb,
- FTTx: x stands for referring to all varieties. 

What is fiber?

In telephone Systems about 10% of the cable is long distance, another 10% is local loop and the rest 80% of the cable is subscriber loop (the connection to the subscriber. As a matter of fact, the long-distance and local loop are all fiber, the rest subscriber loop is made out of copper, fiber to the home in today is completing an all-fiber telephone system.

Why FTTH? Why Now?

As we mentioned – “the rest subscriber loop is made out of copper” is one reason. It’s an aging copper infrastructure. Telephone companies are realizing that the alternatives the fiber to the home are inadequate for future bandwidth needs. DSL has already peaked, because there aren’t enough copper wires around that can support higher-speed on DSL, it simply doesn’t have the bandwidth. Wireless doesn’t have the bandwidth, everybody has a mobile phone, but they’re not going to use it for the things they will use FTTH for.
Around the world, millions of homes and businesses, are being connected up over fiber each year. People are realizing the value of fiber to the home.

 Source: RVA, Fiber Broadband Association 

How do you implement fiber to the home?

The most stupid and expensive way of doing it is just run a single fiber to every home and from every central office. No one would actually do that.

A better option is that run fiber from a central office out to an active node, where has a switch near the home, and sends a short drop cable to the home. However, still, it means an active link to every home.
Use fiber to the curb is an advanced choice. They run fiber to a local switch near the home and use the copper cables already available to connect the home using DSL (digital subscriber line). The problem is that the frequency or bandwidth of the copper cable is inversely proportional to the length. The longer the length, the lower the frequency. Obviously, fiber to the curb has 2 disadvantages:
1. It won’t work in all circumstances,
2. It won’t provide the high bandwidth like fiber.

The secret of fiber to the home is an architecture called PON (passive optical network).  A PON uses an optical splitter to splits the multifiber cable from the central office into multiple drop cables to the subscribers So, the cost is shared among all the subscribers. So the upstream uses a multifiber cable connected to an optical splitter, as for downstream using drop cable to keep the cost down.

PON doesn’t necessarily have to use just one coupler. Cascaded couplers are allowed so that if you have a variety of subscribers on different levels, for example, you can have a 1:8 splitter near the central office, and another 1:8 splitter near the home to save the amount of cabling that you need to support these homes.
The optical line terminal (OLT) in the central office, connects to a fiber distribution box (FDB), that houses the splitter and connects to the homes. A drop cable goes to an optical network terminal (ONT), at the subscriber(home).
A fiber distribution box is designed especially for PON architectures because one fiber coming in goes into a splitter, usually in a splice tray, and then, for example, breaks out to as many as 144 different homes. So, the management of patch cords from the splitter to the home is very important. First, these fiber optic distribution boxes have the ability for fiber management, including fiber retention and fusion splices, so that fibers inside the box won’t become one big giant mess of cables. Second, it is weather-proof, when fiber goes into a fiber distribution box, it losses its protective sheath, it can be easily damaged by various weather, so that a fiber distribution box is also a shelter to protect fibers.
These two reasons are also the main reason why FTTH tends to use special splice closures, where cables come in and continue on out from the top, and then multiple small drop cables are in separate ports.

Prefabricated Cabling 

There is a way to save time and cost further, use prefabricated cabling to drop to the home. The method is that cables are installed with weather-tight closures (fiber optic splice closure, fiber distribution box, etc.) used on poles or underground near the home. For each home, they have a pre-terminated cable, cut to the right length, which merely plugin and pull to the home. When needed, re-open the splice closure, and connect it to the home. This method is wieldy and typically used to save both time and cost for FTTH installation.
At the home, we have an optical network terminal. It takes optical signals coming from the central office through the splitter, converts them into video, voice, and data in the home over the conventional types of cables that you expect.  

Big Capacity Dome Splice Closure
Outdoor Fiber Distribution Box 
144FO FTTx Outdoor Splice Closure
8SC FTTH Floor Distribution Terminal 
2-Port Optical Network Terminal with Dust Cover
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